r17 r0 r2 r3 r4 Dantons Tod (German for Danton's Death) is an opera by composer Gottfried von Einem to a libretto by Boris Blacher and Gottfried von Einem after Georg Büchner's 1835 play of the same name. Its first performance took place in Salzburg, August 6, 1947. It was revised in 1955.The successful premiere of Gottfried von Einem's opera Dantons Tod at the 1947 Salzburg Festival and its quick staging by European houses were due to more than the strong drama of Einem's score. This was a first step toward the rehabilitation of German musicians after World War II; an opera by a young Austrian composer who had not collaborated in the former regime's cultural policies. Dantons Tod dramatizes legalized governmental terror, a plague which the world at the time realized had not been eradicated with the end of the war.Contents 1 Roles 2 Synopsis 3 Recordings 4 ReferencesRoles First performance in Germany, Hamburg State Opera, 1948. SynopsisDantons Tod was adapted from Georg Büchner's play by von Einem and his teacher, composer Boris Blacher. The protagonist is Georges Danton, a leader in the French government during the Revolution. When he turned against Robespierre's tactics—including terror—he was guillotined in April 1794. The opera's first act establishes Danton's confrontation with Robespierre. In the first scene Danton and Camille Desmoulins express their desire for an end of the daily executions to a group of their friends playing cards. Scene two introduces the volatile crowd. Robespierre enters and in an aria sways the crowd and promises more executions. Danton confronts him. After Danton leaves, Robespierre and his colleague Saint-Just decide that he and Camille must be killed. In the last scene of the act Danton announces to Camille and his wife Lucille that he is to be arrested, but he refuses to flee.Act 2 depicts Danton's trial and death. Two scenes before the Revolutionary Tribunal are separated by one with Danton and Camille in prison. Lucille comes to see Camille; she has lost her reason. In the trial scenes the crowd swings between demanding Danton's death and falling under the spell of his eloquent oratory. At the end, in the Place de la Révolution, the condemned prisoners sing "La Marseillaise" in counterpoint to the crowd dancing the Carmagnole. Danton and Camille are guillotined. After the crowd disperses, Lucille enters and sits on the steps of the guillotine. She cries Es lebe der Konig (Long live the king) and is arrested as the curtain falls.Von Einem revised the score slightly after the premier, replacing an orchestral prelude with the chords that now open the opera, cutting an orchestral passage after Danton's death, and revising the final scene with Lucille. These changes make for a more dramatic beginning and ending and add to a score that deserves more frequent revivals than it has seen to date. RecordingsA recording is available on Allegro Corporation's Opera D'Oro label. The cast includes Paul Schöffler as Danton, Julius Patzak as Desmoulins and Maria Cebotari as Lucille. This is a live recording taken from the premiere in Salzburg on August 6, 1947 with the Vienna Philharmonic and Vienna State Opera Chorus conducted by Ferenc Fricsay.
Sudene and Dantons TodThe Superintendency for the Development of the Northeast (Portuguese: Superintendência de Desenvolvimento do Nordeste), or Sudene (Portuguese pronunciation: ) for short, is a Brazilian governmental agency created in 1959, during the government of President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1961), to stimulate economic growth in the northeastern region of Brazil, one of the poorest of the country, that faces chronic droughts and has a semi-arid climate. Sudene was created by suggestion of economist Celso Furtado, one of the leading intellectuals of Brazil, who was the agency's first director.Contents 1 Premise 2 Actions 3 References 4 External linksPremiseFurtado's premise was that the semi-arid climate of the Northeast was an environmental reality against which it would be very unproductive to fight – despite governmental action to take water to that region – and that state poverty reduction programs should thus aim at using the existing natural advantages of the area – namely, its availability of labor – and promote industrialization instead of the region's traditional economic focus, which was on agriculture and livestock. ActionsThe agency's first steps were to speed up the construction of hydroelectric dams in the São Francisco River, followed by governmental incentives for the creation of heavy industry projects, such as the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex, in the state of Bahia, and the industrial district of Aratu, in the metropolitan area of Salvador. Sudene is also responsible for the formation of intermediary products industries: fertilizers production in the state of Sergipe and a chemicals complex in Salgema, state of Alagoas. In the state of Pernambuco, investments concentrated on the metropolitan area of the city of Recife, with durable goods industries being created in the cities of Jaboatão, Cabo and Paulista. In the state of Ceará, a new perspective was adopted: Sudene's incentives helped form a textiles industrial area, around the capital of the state, Fortaleza.In 1999, Sudene was involved in corruption scandals which led President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1994-2002) to decrete its dissolution. In 2002, however, the agency was recreated with the name of Adene - Agency for the Development of the Northeast.